Saturday, December 18, 2010

Malinivijayottara Tantra

Malinivijayottara Tantra

In turya state, the aspirant is identified with Shiva consciousness. The common man simply calls it the turiya or fourth state, because it is beyond the three known states of waking, dream, and deep sleep. He has no experience of the turya state

Kaul's introduction deals usefully with many of the philosophical tenets of Kashmir Shaivism, but it is worth giving a brief outline of some of the other contents of this tantra.

Adhikara (chapter) III, discusses the unfolding of the mantra, and names the eight Matrika devis as Maheshi, Brahmani, Kaumari, Vaishnavi, Aindri, Yamya, Chamunda and Yogishi. They preside over the eight letter groups. This chapter goes on to describe their dhyanas, or meditation images, as well as the mantras or vidyas associated with each.

The fifth adhikara describes the different worlds, the different heavens, and the different underworlds, full as they are of different inhabitants including spirits, demons, gandharvas and gods. The Rudras are above these. The sixth adhikara, which in the colophon is described as dealing with the body, describes the five elements and their position. In adhikara six, the mudras, referred to in Kaul's text below, are discussed.

Adhikara eight deals with ordinary worship at great length, while the ninth chapter concerns itself with initiation and the drawing of the circle or mandala for this rite. The 10th adhikara continues this theme by discussing abhisheka, while chapter 11 deals with initiation (diksha) proper.

The 12th chapter starts to discuss the dharanas associated with the five tanmatras, or objects of the sense impressions, while the 13th chapter is called victory over the elements. It contains detailed meditation images of the elements, and various siddhis are said to occur from these practices. For example:- "Now I declare the meditation on Varuni (water), by which one who accomplishes this yoga becomes the ruler of water (jala) [1]." Meditating on the circle of water allows a yogi to become wetness himself after only seven days. Further practice brings greater siddhis. This is followed by fire, which is visualised as a triangle, air and the other two elements. Detailed instructions are given for different dhyanas and their results.

Chapter fourteen deals with techniques relating to the tanmatras themselves, that is the impressions of smell, taste, sight, touch and hearing, a subject extended in the 15th adhikara. Chapter 16 discusses other dharanas related to the tattvas, while in the 17th adhikara, the different type of breathing and the movement of the vital air through the body is discussed. Chapter 18 discusses the outer lingam, such as that made of clay and the like, and the inner lingam which exists within the body and brings real liberation. The 19th chapter deals with the Kulachakra, chapter 20 talks of the nature of mantras, and the last two adhikaras each discuss yogic techniques relating to the Moon and the Sun respectively. MM]

Malinivijayottara Tantram


The present volume of the Kashmir Series of Texts and Studies represents the Saiva yoga as set forth in the Trika system of Kashmir. Its edition is based on the collation of the manuscripts described below:

(ka).--This manuscript belongs to the Manuscript Library of the late Rajaram Sastri of Srinagar. It is written out on country paper in bold and legible Sarada character. In size it is just about foolscap. Leaves of the MS. number fifty with an average of 27 lines, to each page. Its importance lies in its being correct and its containing variae lectiones which proved greatly useful in the collation work. It is complete except a few omissions. New. No date;. but seems to be three-fourths of a century old.

(kha).--This pertains to Pandit Harabhatta Sastri of this Department. The MS. is in the form of a talapatra and is written on paper in legible Sarad character. It consists of 25 leaves of foolscap size with 24 lines to each page. It is correct and complete but with small lacunae here and there. It is only twenty-five years old. The MS. was of much assistance as far as it threw. light on many intricate points in the volume under notice.

(ga).--This MS. is in possession of Pandit Mahesvara Rajanaka of this Department. It is copied on Kashmirian paper in Devanagari character. The handwriting is bold and legible. The MS. contains 70 leaves measuring 10" by 6". There are a few blanks in the MS. It is correct and older than either of the above two MSS. One of its distinctive features consists in its containing in the colophon the following three couplets which mention the name of the scribe and the date of completion of the transcript · and which are not met with in either of the aforesaid MSS. The couplets run:

1 mAlinIviGYaya.m devyAstantra.m rahasi yat.h purA .
parameshena sa.mprokta.m bhaktAnugrahakAmyayA ..
2 kArttikeyena yachchokta.m shrulvA sa.mpadatostayoH .
munInA.m bhaktiyuktAnA.m sa.msArArNavatAraNam.h ..
3 tadetadurvanuGYAto govindAshramasa.mGYakAH .
shrInondapa.mDitasuto budhe.alikhata vai budhaH ..
Their rendering in English is as follows :--

1. The Tantram, to wit, Malinivijaya, was, of yore, out of compassion for His devotees, said in secrecy by Paramesvara to Devi.

2. This Tantram, a never-failing help in crossing the ocean of mundane existence, was related to the devoted munis by Karttikeya after he had heard it from them, i.e., the Devi and Paramesa the topic of Whose dialogue it formed.

3. The same Tantram, under the charge of his religious preceptor, was transcribed on Wednesday by the learned Govindasrama, son of Sri Nonda Pandita.

The date of the MS. is recorded as Samvat 26 Vaivad Saptamyam Bhaume, i.e., on Tuesday, the 7th of the dark fortnight of Vaisakha 26 anno Vikrami. This 26 must most probably be 1826 A. V. or 1769 A. D. as is corroborated by the older appearance of the paper used on the MS, in question. In addition to the assistance derived from the collation of the above MSS. much pains have been taken in adopting many a corrigendum in the variant readings of the text from their direct and indirect references in Tantraloka, Svacchandatantram, Paratrisika, Sivasutravimarsini and Vijnanabhairava (all of the Kashmir series). The major portion of the MS. owes its correction particularly to the Tantraloka which is a detailed exposition of this and to the Svacchanda to which it is in many respects akin. For this the scholarly labour of my Sanskit staff is really commendable.

In spite of my overcautiousness in making the present edition of the Malinivijayatantram really useful for the Tantric public, many unavoidable blemishes have been· lurking in the book for want of the better material available. I hope that my future researches, carried under :the munificent patronage of the Kashmir Darbar in obtaining the desired material, will ·lead me. to better ends in view.


General.--The supreme control over and the gradual unification' with the 36 principles from Siva to the gross earth form, inter alia, the principal argument of the Malinitantram.The first recipient of this mystic lore is Paramesa who learns it from Aghora. The Tantram is in the form of an interlocution between the Devi and Paramesa, the sacred teachings whereof have been communicated to the Rshis by Kumara the destroyer of Taraka.

It seems from the opening verses that there was originally a Tantram called the Siddhayogisvaritantram which consisted of nine crore verses and which interpreted the Saivaistic teachings in the light of Bheda, Bhedabheda and Abheda. Its abnormal prolixity necessitated its being summarised in three crore verses, the chief topic dealt with therein being the path of yoga. The abstract thus formed went by the name of Malinivijaya. In course of time, another improved and still more summarised edition· of 12,000 verses of the same was adopted. The tantram in the present form is supposed to be the briefest resume of the above as far as it is most convenient and helpful to the dull brain.

In my opinion supported by the text itself, the Malinitantram is the latter part of the Siddhayogisvaritantram of which the former part was probably represented by the Siddhamatam (cf. sloka 13, M. V. T., 1st Adhikara).

Authorship of the Tantram.--The Tantram is affiliated to the Agama Sastra and is, as such, of divine authorship. The origin of the sacred lore or Agama is very beautifully painted in the rich vocabulary of Tantraloka. It describes in a masterly style the way how it was revealed to the sages :--

"The Logos, or the All-Transcending Word (Paravak), germinally contains all the Sastras or Agamas in their super-sensuous form. This Logos materialises gradually into the physical form as syllables or vocables and, as such, forms the units of speech. In its preliminary materialisation as Pasyanti, the two aspects of consciousness are totally merged together and the words and their meanings are not at all separated. The objects of perception in this stage appear as of a piece with the subject. In the intervening stage of the Para, words and their meanings are differentiated from each other in the mind before being voiced forth. In the last stage it becomes Vaikhari because it expresses itself through the words uttered by different vocal organs.

"Thus the Para, forms ultimately the source of all the Sastras flowing out as spoken words from the five faces of the Supreme Being, which represent His fivefold Sakti--Cit, Ananda, Iccha, Jnana and Kriya. The five systems of revelation, which principally originate from Paramashiva through His five powers, constitute the 92 schools of Tantras divisible into three classes and designated respectively Siva, Rudra and Bhairava. First of these which maintains the doctrine of duality consists often systems only. The second class contains eighteen systems and propounds the doctrine of duality-unity or Bhedabheda. The last, on the other hand, is unique in declaring the eternal truth in the light of Idealistic Monism and preaches its doctrine in 64 systems."

The same line of thought is also perceptible in the primeval utterances of our ancient vedic seers. The reader is advised to consult the verses 29, 45 hymn 164, mandala I, .Rgveda.

1 aya.m sa shi.mkte yena gaurabhIvR^itA
mimAti mAyu.m dhva.msanAvadhishritA .
sA chittibhirni hi chakAra marttya.m
vidyudbhavantI prati vavrimaudata ..
2 chatvAri vAk.h parimitA padAni
tAni vidurbrAhmaNA ye manIShiNaH .
guhA trINi nihitA ne.mgaya.mti
turIya.m vAcho manuShyA vadanti ..

Tantra defined.--Tantra being a generic term for a class of religious and magical works is designated as the mantrasastra though it generally treats of (i) incantations, (ii} their philosophy, (ill) the principles, (iv) the worlds, (v). ceremony, (vi) initiation, (vii) worship, (viii) mental and bodily discipline, (ix) observances of a Tantric. Like the Veda it is, as the Tantrics hold, the breath of the Supreme Being or in other words the immutable and eternal knowledge.

The performance of the present day Vedic ceremonies by the Kashmiris, which run side by side with those of the Tantras and which are sometimes intermixed with the latter, leads to believe that the Tantras are either an imitation or a development of, or an improvement upon the Vedic ceremonies. The Tantric supplement is useful, in the opinion of the Tantrist, to quicken and ensure the fulfilment of desires in the Kali age.

Tantric worship.---It does not essentially differ from that of the Vedas. It strongly maintains the Omniscience and the omnipotence of God. The complete immersion of the duality in unity is the main lesson of the Tantras. The adorer becomes the adored himself. His body is the temple and his soul the idol in it. He is the high priest not of a god above; around, or below but of his own ever-wakeful self.

Tantric view of Moksha.-- Moksha, in the tantric sense of the word, is the unfoldment of powers brought about by the self-realization. It is not the giving up of the mortal coil and thus acquiring immunity from death. To a real Tantric, birth and death are phenomena of his own creation. He finds gratification as much in the one as in the other (cf. Bhairavastotra of Abhinava Gupta). He is the Bhairava whose name even strikes terror into the destructive agencies and at whose sweet will the world lives, moves and has its being. His sole article of faith is that death has significance only for those who are subject to mortality and not for those who have risen superior to its idea by their living belief in the deathlessness of the soul (cf. Tantraloka p. 192, vol. I)

Realistic Optimism of the Tantras.--A Tantric, like the one believing in the Vedas, by gradual marches on the spiritual path, comes to feel his close kinship with nature. To him both the animate and the inanimate are glowing with divinity. The divinely glorious presence puts an end to all his animal tendencies and inspires him to fulfil his noble mission. His self-centredness cheers him up and infuses him with the fresh energy that facilitates and quickens the dawn of his native glory without any detriment to the enjoyment of the sweet pleasures awaiting him in the world. To him the world is not an illusion, not a Maya of the Vedantists, and therefore he tries to make himself and his surroundings happy to the best of his ability.

Potency of the Mantras.--The main theme with which the Tantras are concerned is the power of Mantras. Mantras, as the Tantrists maintain, are certain scientifically arranged formulas which, if practised according to the Tantric precepts, bring about certain results conducive to the fulfilment of utterer's wishes. Each and every Matrika (a, A, etc.) is a living energy in itself and should in no way be mistaken for a mere Varna or letter. A living force is created by placing the letters in a certain systematic order by the Sadhaka.

The mantras are nothing but the harmoniously living forces strong enough, no doubt, to accomplish even the most difficult undertakings of the votaries of the Tantras. This is not all. The arrangement of letters in a scientific procedure goes a great way to help the worshipper, provided no omissions of any sort of the part or parts in the Tantric ceremony are made, to fathom out the hidden secrets of nature, nay work wonders, and gradually free him from the meshes of the world and raise him high to the lofty plain of supreme consciousness styled Paramapada.

All-embracing nature of the Tantras.--The great merit of the Tantra lies in its all comprehensive and all-embracing nature. The portals of Tantra are invitingly open to all irrespective of caste and creed. The repulsive and revolting. creed of untouchability .is unknown here. The sweet cup of nectar, which it holds in its outstretched palms, can be enjoyed by both the high and the low. No hard and fast rules, nor any strict observances like those of the Vaidikas, are to be followed by the devotees of Tantra. Shortlived and enervated as the men of iron age are, they, by following the short and smooth methods of Tantric self-culture, accomplish within a short span. of time what others achieve in ages after ages. This is why the Tantras are popular and have a large following.

Difficulties in the adoption of Tantric methods.--But no rose is without a thorn. Good and evil run side by side. There is nothing which has unmixed good or unmixed evil in it. The rosy path of the Tantric is beset with thorns here and there. It is therefore the foremost duty of the Sadhaka to avoid the thorns and to adhere to the rosy path, lest he fall into the trap of the low spirits of nature, who, trying to cause mischief, put obstacles in his way and thereby retard his progress in the attainment of his desired object. It is only the potency of the mantras that brings about the subjugation of these supersensuous beings.

But, as ill luck would have it, a novice or a beginner in the Tantric ceremonies, oftener than not, associates with the low spirits and makes them minister to his unlawful ends. He discards the achievement of the high ideal which he ought to have followed strictly and unerringly. This sort of practice is resorted to by the black magicians whose fate is rendered miserable both here and hereafter. Practices of this type are, never and in no region, commendable on the part of the real Tantrics. The realisation of the Advaita Tattva is the chief aim, or the summum bonum, to be attained by the high-class Tantrics. It is to this end that they consecrate their lives and gain the highest status in spirituality.

Malini--In his commentary on the 17th verse of the Tantraloka, volume I, p. 35, No. XXIX of our Series, Jayaratha says that the Malinivijayottara is so called because, due to the glory of Malini, it occupies a pre-eminent position among and is superior to all the other Schools of Saivaistic Tantrism. Malini is also known by Mala and so the Malini is the generic term for the series of letters or the alphabet.

The natural and phonetically scientific order of the Sanskrit alphabet goes by the name of Purvamalini which is popularly known as Matrika or Siddhi. When, on the other hand, no attention is paid to the alphabetic origin and to its natural order and when therefore the vowels and consonants are taken promiscuously, the alphabet is called Uttaramalini, chiefly denoting that order in which 'na' occupies the first position and 'pha' the last.

Malinivijayottara has reserved for itself the various modes of application of the Uttaramalini for the mystic practices just as the Svacchanda does of the Purvamalini. I believe that in the time of the Sri Svacchanda either the order of the alphabet from ' na' to 'pha' was unknown or less appreciated and therefore less in vogue, or that the followers of the Svacchanda did not believe in the Malinimata. -Of course Kshemaraja looks at the Svacchanda in the Trika perspective but there is no reference whatsoever to the Malini, i.e., the Uttaramalini, in the text of Svacchanda.

The Sanskrit alphabet as given in the Uttaramalini arrangement runs as below:

na R^i R^I L^i L^I tha cha dha I Na u U ba ka
kha ga gha ~Na i a va bha ya Da Dha Tha jha ja ra Ta
pa Cha la A sa aH ha Sha xa ma sha ~na ta e ai
o au da pha .

Malini is of the greatest utility in infusing the divine life into the body of practisers and all the Tantrists are enjoined to have recourse to it for the attainment of desired objects in all the cases in which particular details and instructions could not be punctiliously observed regarding nyasa. Different parts of the human body represent the different letters of the Malini. While giving the three kinds of mantra called para, apara and parapara, instances are furnished as to how a particular incantation can be made out from particular technical terms such as head, eyes, etc. (see p. 135, Tantrasara of our Series).

Commentary.--The text of the Malinivijayatantra is difficult to be understood owing to the numerous technicalities found in it. But the attempts of Abhinavagupta. have left no point unexplained and for this the Tantric public must feel specially thankful to him. The first verse of the Tantram he took up in his Malinivijaya varttika and explained it so thoroughly that connotations of several terms are made clearly intelligible. The points, that could not :find room in the Varttika for want of space and owing to its limited scope as Varttika, he discussed in the Tantraloka.

The Tantraloka, as the author himself declares, is a detailed exposition of the Tantram. The reader of the Tantra could get an opportunity of understanding the text more clearly if this Department were to get the MS. of Abhinava's Purvapanchika on it. (See commentary on Tantraloka; 16th Ahnika). Abhinava has a very high opinion of the Tantra and says in the Tantraloka that the Malinivijaya is the essence of the Trika System which again represents the pith and marrow of the different teachings of the Lord enunciated in the different schools of Tantras.


The great sages Narada and others, feeling athirst under the holy inspiration of Sivasakti for the right realisation of the Supreme Principle, repair to Kumara and, after paying due homage, request him to initiate them in the mystic processes of yoga. Kumara, thereupon takes commiseration on them and communicates the secret knowledge of the Malinivijayatantra as originally addressed by Siva to Uma.

The whole range of the knowable is divided into two classes, the acceptable and the avoidable. The acceptables are: Siva, Sakti, Vidyesa, Mantra, Mantresvara and the Jivas. The impurity, actions, Maya and the whole world, as her creation, form the category of the avoidables. The key to the success in both the spheres of matter and soul is supplied by the right discernment of the acceptable and the avoidable.

The supreme controller of the universe in the words of the Malinivijaya is all-doing, all-knowing, all-sustaining and infinite. On the emergence of desire at the creational stage, He evolves out of His own Self the octad of Vijnanakevalas. He assigns to them the functions of sustenance, destruction, preservation and benefaction. For their sphere of action He manifests seven crores of mantras with their respective ranges. All these mantras are the living psychical forces and they gratify the wishes of a Sadhaka by the well-merited bestowal of fruits.

The self comes into manifestation in the fourfold capacity as Siva, Mantramahesa, Mantresa and Mantra. Siva is the lord Himself. Vijnanakala is a degree less than Mantra owing to the defilement of mala. Pralayakala is wrapped up in the defilements of mala and karma. Mala stands for the imperfect knowledge and the tree of the world shoots up therefrom. Karma is the action in general. As virtuous, it leads to pleasure and, as otherwise, it yields pain. Sakala stands for the anus or jivas in general. Their field is offered by the totality of categories from kala to earth.*

Rudras are one hundred and eighteen in number and are headed by Angushthamatra.

According to their merits they are appointed as Mantresvaras. They take over charge of their departments and reward Brahma and others according to their deserts. The sages receive the sacred science of the knowable either as · acceptable or as avoidable from Brahma, etc. and Manus, from the sages.

Of the seven crores of mantras one half of the portion has, at the option of Siva, attained the deathless stage after favouring hosts of jivas.

Each principle from earth up to matter is susceptible of being viewed from fifteen different standpoints owing to the seven perceivers regarded either as Sakti or as Saktiman and to the principle itself; those from Purusha to Kala, from thirteen owing to the inapplicability of perceptivity to Sakala therein. The principle of maya is viewed from eleven standpoints because of the further reduction of Pralayakala as .perceiver. Similarly, other principles know each a further reduction of two standpoints up to the last principle of Siva which has no diversity.

The spiritual teacher is defined as one who knows all the aforesaid principles in their true perspective. He occupies as lofty a position as Siva and is, as such, the revealer of the potency of mantras. At his mere touch the people get purged of all sins.

The inspiration of Rudra Sakti is ever existent in him. The five indicative marks of the Rudrasakti are: (1) firm devotion to Rudra, (2) the success of the mantra capable of yielding the desired object instantaneously, (3) the control over all creatures, (4) the bringing to completion of all undertakings, and (5) the poetic faculty. The inspiration of Rudrasakti is primarily divisible into three heads, Anava, Sakta and Sambhava, each of which is fiftyfold with reference to bhuta, tattva, atman, mantresa and Sakti and to their Sub-divisions.

Anava is that inspiration of Rudrasakti which is attainable by utterance, conscious mental discipline (karana), contemplation, incantation and the bodily centres.

Sakta is the name of that stage which is obtainable by .the contemplation through the mind on the object of meditation accompanied by utterance.

Sambhava indicates the state which is produced by the deep and penetrative spiritual insight involving absolutely no mental concentration on any particular object.

All the above forms of inspiration are susceptible of being interpreted in the light of the fivefold state, waking, dreaming, dreamless, the fourth and beyond the fourth. The following table is given to help the reader in tracing the pentad of states in the chain of standpoints undergoing a gradual reduction by twos at each stage of perceivers:--

From earth to matter
1. Svarupa-sakala stage
(a) Svarupa-sakala-sakti = waking state (jagrat)
(b) Pralayakala = dreaming state (svapna)
(c) Vijnanakala = dreamless state (sushupti)
(d) Mantra, mantresa, mantramahesa = 4th state
(e) Sivasakti = beyond the 4th state

From Purusha to kala
2. Sakala stage
(a) Sakala = waking state
(b), (c), (d), (e) As above

Principle of maya
3. Pralayakala stage
(a) Pralayakala = waking state
(b) Vijnanakalasakti = dreaming state
(c), (d), (e) As above

4. Vijnanakala stage
(a) Vijnanakala = waking state
(b) Mantra = dreaming state
(c) Mantresa = dreamless state
(d) Mantramahesa = the 4th state
(e) as above

5. Mantra stage
(a) Mantra = waking
(b) Mantresa = dreaming
(c) Mantramahesa = dreamless
(d) Sakti = the 4th
(e) Siva = beyond the 4th

6. Mantresa stage
(a) Mantresa = waking
(b) Mantramahesasakti = dreaming
(c) Mantramahesa = dreamless
(d), (e) As above

7. Mantramahesa stage
(a) Mantramahesa = waking
(b) Kriyasakti = dreaming
(c) Jnanasakti = dreamless
(d) Icchasakti = the 4th
(e) Siva = beyond the 4th

Undifferentiated stage
Siva stage
(a) Kriya = (a) Waking
(b) Jnana = (b) Dreaming
(c) Iccha = (c) Dreamless
(d) Ananda = (d) The 4th
(e) Cit = (e) Beyond the 4th

The synonyms of the states are:
(a) Jagrat = Pindastha = Sarvatobhadra.
(b) Svapna = Padastha = Vyapti.
(c) Sushupti = Rupastha = Mahavyapti.
(d) Turya = Pracaya = Rupatita.
(e) Turyatita = Mahapracaya.

The triple manifestation of the transcendental self as an average self, as energy and as Siva, constitutes the triad of fundamentals forming the central theme of the Trika Philosophy. It covers the entire field of Tattvas of the Saivaism, the Atman overlapping as many as those beginning with earth and ending with the Vijnanakala; Vidya or Sakti, those from Mantra to Mantresvara and the rest constituting the state of Siva.

The fourfold classification of the Tattwas from the evolutionistic standpoint is termed the earthly, the material, the mayic and the Saktic. Among these the first is pervaded by Dharika Kala. It has only one Tattwa, one letter, one world, one mantra represented by 'ksha' and sixteen worlds. Apyayani Kala pervades the second. Twenty-three. principles from water upwards and as many letters (ta and others) are assigned to it. Five words, five mantras and fifty-six worlds are included in it. The third is permeated by the Bodhini Kali. Seven principles, twenty-eight worlds, seven letters, two words and two mantras are found in it. The last is covered by Utpuyini and there are three principles, three letters, eighteen worlds, one word and one mantra in this class. The final principle is called Siva, As such, it is under the Avakasada kala and has sixteen vowels, one mantra and one word. The above four classes are respectively presided over by Brahma, Vishnu, Rudra and Isvara.

In giving the genesis of the sanskrit alphabet from 'a' to 'ksha' there occurs a description as to how the inseparable Sakti of the Lord, at the cosmic stage, evolves as cognition and activity when He feels the holy impulse of bringing into manifestation the world as we see it. The faculty that gives the determinate knowledge, 'this is thus and not otherwise', is known as jnanasakti.

The kriyasakti denotes that faculty wherethrough the determination, 'let such and such thing come to light', is translated into action. As regards the universe of sound, Sakti appears as Purvamalini representing the alphabet from 'a' to 'ksha'. Aghora is said to be awakened into action by Paramesvara and at His desire he vitalises maya and from her emanate various letters and these letters are the source of knowledge in general.

Although the Sakti of Siva possesses infinite forms, she is chiefly known through her three aspects--(a) apara or ghoratari, (b) parapara or ghora, and (c) para or aghora. The apara keeps always surrounding the Rudra souls and pushes the Jivas on the downward march by attaching them to sense objects. Parapara, like the former, hinders the progress of the jivas towards their goal of life and brings about their attachment to the mixed fruit of pain and pleasure. Lastly, para occupies herself in conducting the creatures to the highest end of life, the attainment of Siva stage. The Uttaramalini in which also Sakti appears is referred to above.

The three respective mantras of the above triad are given in the phraseology of the different parts of the human organism.

The allotment of the six systems of the path (adhvan) is substantially the same in the Uttaramalini as in the Purvamalini. The former in this respect differs from the latter inasmuch as the order of the alphabet is different to and other than that given for the former. 'Pha' is assigned to the principle of earth. From 'da' to 'jha' the twenty-three 'letters are respectively allocated to the corresponding 23 principles beginning with water and ending with matter. The principles from purusha to maya claim one each, the letters from 'cha' to 'a'; 'i' to 'gha' cover respectively, the principles Suddhavidya, Isvara and Sadasiva. The principle of Siva embraces the sixteen letters from 'ga' upto 'na'.

For understanding the application of the three mantras of para, apara and parapara, as regards the different principles, the reader is advised to consult the passage given on page 24 Malinivijaya.

The knowledge of the acceptable as also of the avoidable is indispensable for the attainment of yoga which, as such, is the unification, of the individual soul with the universal. Jnana as well as yoga lead alike to the goal of life as referred to above. The former is threefold as being based on what is heard, on contemplation and on living realisation of the reality. The first deals with it as dwelt upon here and there in the sacred texts. The second involves a deeper study of those in their entirety with an eye to sifting the fundamentals. The third marks the final stage of the seeker after truth and is possible only on the fixity of the previous stage.

Yogi also has to go through the four stages while on the path of Yoga. According to the degree of divine inspiration, he is called (1) Samprapta, (2) Ghatamana, (3) Siddha and (4) Siddhatama.

Samprapta is one who has received initiation through a line of teachers and is living upto it.

Ghatamana refers to him who again and again checks and restrains his mind from the outside influence and. concentrates it on the truth.

By the continuity of efforts owing to the ever-increasing interest, he gets success in disciplining his mind into the concentration on that truth exclusively, and is called Siddhayoga.

When getting totally identified with the highest principle so as to lose his individuality to the utter disregard of the circumstances he is placed in, he becomes siddha. In this stage alone he is really justified to uplift the depressed humanity.

The saiva teacher is advised to purge his disciple of all the impurities peculiar to the different worlds numbering 118 which respectively cover the range of principles from Prithivi to Sadasiva before he can lead him to find the reality in Siva.

The purification of the soul is to be necessarily undergone not only in the above way but also in the body which microcosmically represents all the principles.

The Malinivijaya has a set of mudras on the exercise of which it lays a great stress and enumerates them as follows:--

(a) Trisula. (b) Padma. (c) Sakti. (d) Cakra. (e) Vajra. (f) Danda. (h) Mahapreta. (i) Mahamudra. (j) Khagesvari..(k) Mahodaya. (1) Karala. (m) Khatvanga. (n) Kapala. (o) Hala. (p) Pasa. (q) Ankusa. (r) Ghanta. (s) Trisikhamudgara. (t) Avaha. (u) Sthapana (v) Rodha. (w) Dravyada. (x) Nati. (y) Amrta, and (z) Yogamudri.

Their mantras are to be formed by prefixing the syllables 'om' and 'hrim' and affixing the word 'namah' at the end.

A follower of the Malini School, if and when he desires to perform a sacrifice, must have purificatory baths technically known as Bhasmasnana, Jalasnana, Agnisnana, Vayusnana and Divyasnana. Being thus purified he should enter the sacrificial altar and offer worship to the deities of the entrance. He should consider himself as akin to Siva in the form of light and should electrify himself with the vital energy of consciousness consisting in 'I am He.' He should identify his body with the matrika assigning each of the parts of his body to the corresponding letters of the alphabet according to the arrangement of the matirkanyasa. In the saktanyasa which he has to observe after this, he has to, identify his body with the three vidyas alluded to above.Then he has to perform the mental sacrifice for the details of which the student is advised to consult the text p. 48 Malinivijayatantram.

As regards the physical worship the worshipper is to worship Ganesa as three-eyed, as elephant-headed and as dwarfish in stature. The puja to Ganesa being over, he has to contemplate Siva as seated on the sixfold seat of Ananta, Dharma, Jnana, Vairagya, Aisvarya, and Karnika and as bearing a sword, a shield, fierce to look at, of great jaws, terrible and with his eyebrows knit together and surrounded by the eight deities (matrikas).

Then he should begin the sacrifice. Two vessels, one big and one small formed of gold and full of perfumed water, should be placed with two canopies of white cloth over them. Indra and other deities of the quarters should be requested to watch the proceedings so as to ward off the malignant influences while. the smaller vessel, is passed round and its water allowed to drop. Then he should prepare a kunda for the fire. The fire should necessarily be got either in a copper vessel or in an earthen pot and should receive the several ceremonies of birth, etc. He should perform homa by muttering the mulamantra one hundred times and the other attendant mantras ten times. The homa being over, he may rest and go to sleep.

If he sees a good dream he may express it to his disciples and if otherwise he should perform the homa.

The vows that a Tantric disciple has to observe are:- (A) that he should always offer worship (a) to his deity, (b) to the fire, (c)to the spiritual teacher and (d) to the goddesses; (B) that he should not eat without offering his food to them; (C) that he should refrain from using the property dedicated to the deity, the guru and Candi; (D) that he should not even for a moment engage himself in idle and unavailing pursuits and lastly (E) that he should either be fixed in the practice of yoga or in that of the mantra.

When by the proper and satisfactory discharge of the duties prescribed for him, the disciple gives an unmistakable proof of his ardent admiration for the Saivism and when consequently the Saiva teacher also feels justified in initiating him in its mysteries by his own conviction in the depth and genuineness of the disciple's longing for the same, the latter should have the mystic diagrams drawn on the carefully selected piece of ground in conformity with the rules and regulations detailed in the Malinivijayatantram. In their centre he should invoke Bhairava and perform the puja to Him. Thereupon, he should approach Him with the following:--'At Thy dictate, O Lord, I have been installed in the position of a preceptor. The disciples are fully under the sanctifying influence of Sivasakti. They, as such, deserve Thy favour. They have sought Thy help in securing it. Therefore, O Lord, I pray, be kind to me and let my body be enshrined by Thee so that I may be qualified to render them due assistance.'

The prayer being over, he should believe and feel that the six kinds of the Path are presided over by Bhairava and that his body has veritably been penetrated into by the divine spirit and the cloaks of mala that conceal his kinship with Siva have fallen one by one laying it entirely bare to him. In this stage he should identify himself with his disciple and with the path in which the disciple is to be initiated by the holy faith, 'I alone am the supreme reality; this whole universe is in me; I am' the stay and support of this all.'

The unification of the Sishya, the teacher and the rest of the world into the one ultimate reality is the Nirvana. This is as regards the outer aspect of initiation.

As regards the inner side, the teacher has to bring in the Jiva of his disciple from the outside into his own self and then he has to awaken the serpent force in him and move it up from centre to centre till it reaches the Brahmic aperture in the head. The disciple, that is thus united with the supreme principle by his own spiritual teacher, witnesses the destruction of his bondage of maya and never, thenceforth, takes his birth and becomes a pasu.

If the disciple after receiving initiation feels: a strong impulse to acquire the mystic powers,,he may repair to his guru and obtain instructions from him regarding the performance of certain penances leading to that end.

In case the Sadhaka aspires after the attainment of the stage of Acarya, he must acquire a higher mode of initiation leading to enjoyment both here and hereafter. The formation of the diagrams and the kundas and such· other external requisites have no significance in it. He has only to consider and really believe that his. body has been burnt by the bright fire of energy enkindled from the tip of the toe up to the cranium through the help of mahamudra. After that he has to consider himself as possessed of an ethereal form purged of the impurities closely accompanying the principle of materiality.

The inspiration of Sivasakti as revealed in him is determined by the particular movement of Dantakashtha. The reception of the divine inspiration is betokened by the five states of (1) happiness, (2) the awakening of the serpent force; (3) the bodily tremulation, (4) sleep and (5) intoxication. In this initiation sixty-four lamps are to be lighted and the worship to Siva is offered in a conch full of herbs and perfumed water with which the Sadhaka is anointed towards the end of the ceremony.

A spiritual teacher, who has already obtained control over the different principles constituting the world, must very well ascertain the tendency of the disciple towards a particular principle, before he instructs him in the way to achieve success in securing the conquest thereof. He should never allow him to swerve from that with which he has made an effort already to unify himself. He is sure to get union with Siva through that after enjoying particular privileges peculiar thereto.

But the place must invariably be in all cases very well chosen for entering upon the yogic practices. It must either be a cave or a cell with no din of the world and perfectly charming as regards scenery. It must be a safe retreat from all evil contaminations.

Such a place very well serves the purpose of the yogi who has habituated himself·to a particular posture day and night. A man of the street or a man of the field cannot take to yoga and profit by that. A candidate for that must have curbed his passions to the entire subjugation of the mind. He must have had an established practice in the suppression of breath. All the sense activities must be under his control. He must have overcome sleep, anger and the mental restlessness and must be altogether impervious to pain.

A candidate with such qualifications is entitled to yogic practice and if he continue to follow the methods adopted for different dharanas, he is sure to win his conquest of the entire cosmos. The palm of the glory attendant upon the success in each dharana from earth to Siva is very well described in the latter portion of the Malinivijaya. If the seeker after truth dives deeper in the mysteries of them, he will himself examine the truth of the statements made so often in connection with the dharanas. His patience will not be exhausted by the minute details recorded in relation to the dharanas because the success in one particular dharana will repay the trouble in an incalculable way.

* Cf. Tantrasara. The group of perceivers designated Mantramahesvaras is domineered over by Sadasiva. At this stage objectivity is dim and is wholly overshadowed by subjectivity. The Mantramahesvaras carry on their functions under the supervision of Isvara. This stage is marked by the polarity of objecjtivity and subjectivity. The Mantras under the guidance of Anantabhattaraka find their place at the stage of Suddhavidya. It gives rise to the multiform objectivity. At the stage intervening between Suddhavidya and maya, Vijnanakevalas only are in existence as pure cognition. Maya is peculiar to Pralayakevalas. The principles from maya down to the earth is the sphere of Sakalas.

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